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The Boondock Saints is a 1999 American crime film written and directed by Troy Duffy. The film stars Sean Patrick Flanery and Norman Reedus as fraternal twins, Connor and Murphy MacManus, who become vigilantes after killing two members of the Russian Mafia in self-defense. After both experience an epiphany, the brothers, together with their friend "Funny Man" (David Della Rocco), set out to rid their home city of Boston, Massachusetts of crime and evil, all while being pursued by FBI Agent Paul Smecker (Willem Dafoe). Duffy indicates that the screenplay was inspired by personal experience, while living in Los Angeles. Initially regarded as one of the hottest scripts in Hollywood, the movie had a troubled production and was finally given a limited theatrical release of only five theaters for one week due to the Columbine High School massacre. It was met with poor critical reviews; however, the film ultimately grossed about $50 million in domestic video sales and developed a large cult following. The Irish American fraternal twin brothers, Connor and Murphy MacManus, attend a Catholic Mass, where the priest mentions the fate of Kitty Genovese. Later, while celebrating St. Patrick's Day with friends, the two get into a bar brawl with three Russian mobsters who want to close the pub and take over the land it is built on. The two brothers try to reason with the mobsters, but they respond with violence, only to be quickly and embarrassingly dispatched by the brothers and other patrons of the bar. The next morning, two of the Russians seek revenge on Connor and Murphy, who kill the mobsters in an act of self-defense. FBI Agent Paul Smecker is assigned to the case, and finds that the police and local news reporters see them as heroes. The MacManus brothers turn themselves in at a police station, where Smecker interviews them. After they retell their incident to Smecker, he allows them to spend the night in a holding cell to avoid attention from the media (the police accept the brothers' story that they acted in self-defense and no charges are filed). That night, they receive what appears to be a "calling" from God telling them to hunt down wicked men so that the innocent will flourish. Connor and Murphy resolve to rid Boston of evil men. Connor learns of a meeting of Russian syndicate bosses at a hotel from a pager taken from one of the dead Russian mobsters. Having equipped themselves with weaponry from a local underground gun dealer, the brothers quickly kill all nine Russian mobsters, while Rocco, a friend of the brothers and mob errand boy for local mafia boss Giuseppe "Papa Joe" Yakavetta, is sent in on an independent hit as an unknowing throwaway. During the investigation, Smecker believes that the killings of the Russian mobsters are the result of the beginning of a mob war. The next day, Rocco confirms the MacManus brothers' assertion that he was betrayed by Papa Joe, the hit amounting to an attempt to have Rocco killed by the nine Russian mobsters as he was sent in with only a six-shot revolver. Rocco promptly massacres the Yakavetta flunkies in a fit of righteous indignation and flees the scene, leaving it to be analyzed by Smecker that afternoon. That night, the MacManus brothers and Rocco hunt down an underboss of the Yakavetta crime family, Vincenzo Lapazzi, and kill him. Concerned he may be a target, Papa Joe contacts a hitman, Il Duce, to deal with them. After killing a criminal that Rocco had a personal hatred for, the three men are ambushed by Il Duce. Although they manage to chase Il Duce away, the three men suffer serious wounds, the most serious being the loss of Rocco's finger. The three return to a house where after a brief, heated argument, they cauterize each other's wounds. While watching Smecker give a press conference, Rocco insists that Smecker is a liability and should be taken care of, but the brothers insist no action be taken against him. Hours later as the police conduct an investigation at the crime scene, the investigation seems futile since the brothers covered their tracks by spraying any blood left behind with ammonia. However, Smecker happens upon the part of the finger lost by Rocco and decides to do an independent investigation to see who was behind the gun battle. Smecker is able to track the evidence down to Rocco and his two allies. This leaves Smecker in a difficult scenario, and struggles with the choice of whether to prosecute the three men, or join them in their cause, as Smecker had become sympathetic towards the brothers' actions. After getting drunk at a gay bar and subsequently getting advice from a reluctant priest (being held at gunpoint by Rocco, who in turn is held by Connor for threatening the priest), Smecker decides to help the trio. Later, the brothers and Rocco inform Smecker that they plan to infiltrate the Yakavetta headquarters to finish off the family, but Smecker learns they are walking into a trap. The brothers are captured, and Rocco is shot and killed by Papa Joe. As Papa Joe leaves his house, Smecker arrives in drag claiming to have been sent by another soldier. After fixing his costume, he leaves the bathroom and shoots the man who objected to "her" presence. Smecker finds the last man with his throat cut and is knocked out shortly after by Il Duce, who does not kill Smecker because he objects to harming women and children. The brothers manage to escape and kill the soldier sent down. As the brothers say their family prayer over Rocco, Il Duce enters the room and is prepared to open fire. However, it is revealed that Il Duce is the father of the brothers. He finishes the prayer and decides to join his two sons in their mission. Three months later, Papa Joe is sent to trial for a third time. However, the reporters on-scene anticipate his acquittal. The brothers and Il Duce, aided by Agent Smecker and the three detectives, infiltrate the trial after sliding their weapons over the metal detector, unmasked, and make a speech stating that they intend to eradicate evil wherever they find it before the three men recite their family prayer and kill Papa Joe. The media dubs the three as "the Saints", and the movie ends with various candid interviews with the public, reflecting on the question "Are the Saints ultimately good...or evil?" Willem Dafoe as FBI Agent Paul Smecker, a brilliant but emotionally troubled gay man assigned to the murders linked to the MacManus brothers. Sean Patrick Flanery as Connor MacManus, one-half of the MacManus brothers. He has a tattoo on his left hand that reads "Veritas" ("truth" in Latin). He is more sensible and rational than his brother, and often tries to carefully plan out their missions; however, he usually and foolishly bases his plans off plans used by classic action movies. Connor frequently references John Wayne, Clint Eastwood, and Charles Bronson. Norman Reedus as Murphy MacManus, the other half of the MacManus brothers. He has a tattoo on his right hand that reads "Aequitas" ("justice/equality" in Latin). He seems to be the more emotional and hot-headed of the two; however, Murphy is usually shown to be exasperated by Connor's second hand cliche movie plans. David Della Rocco as David Della Rocco ("The Funny Man"), a henchman of the Yakavetta clan until Papa Joe sets him up to be killed, and a loyal friend of the MacManus brothers. Billy Connolly as Noah MacManus / Il Duce ("The Duke"), father of Connor and Murphy. He is released from prison by Yakavetta to confront the brothers and Rocco, only to assist the brothers after learning who they are. Bob Marley as Detective Greenly, a marginally competent Boston Police Department detective assigned to the gang murders. David Ferry as Detective Dolly, a detective partnered with Greenly and Duffy. Brian Mahoney as Detective Duffy, a detective partnered with Greenly and Dolly. Carlo Rota as Don Giuseppe "Papa Joe" Yakavetta, leader of a powerful mafia in Boston. Ron Jeremy as Vincenzo Lapazzi, Yakavetta's right-hand man. Gerard Parkes as Doc, the owner of an Irish-themed pub who has Tourette syndrome. Sergio Di Zio one of the men in the Deli that knew about Rocco's set-up Troy Duffy's screenplay was inspired by his disgust at seeing a drug dealer taking money from a corpse across the hall from his apartment. Duffy, who was working as a bartender and bouncer, had never written a screenplay before. Duffy completed the screenplay in fall of 1996 and passed it to a producer's assistant at New Line Cinema to be read by a senior executive. The screenplay changed hands through multiple studios and Duffy was approached by multiple producers for the rights. In March 1997, he was contracted by Paramount Pictures for $500,000, and later in the month, Miramax Films won a bidding war to buy The Boondock Saints. The studio offered $450,000 to Duffy to write and direct the film. The documentary Overnight, which chronicled Duffy's "rags-to-riches-to-rags" story, showed that the script was worth $300,000, and the film itself was originally given a $15 million budget by Miramax's Harvey Weinstein. Duffy's band The Brood would do the soundtrack, and as a bonus, Miramax offered to buy and throw in co-ownership of J. Sloan's, where Duffy worked. Overnight showed that Duffy frequently exhibited abrasive behavior, causing tension for many people involved in the project. Filming of The Boondock Saints was scheduled for the coming autumn in Boston. Duffy sought to cast Stephen Dorff and Mark Wahlberg as the brothers, though Wahlberg passed for Boogie Nights. The director also wanted to cast Billy Connolly and Kenneth Branagh in the film, with Branagh playing FBI Agent Paul Smecker. Duffy also expressed interest in casting Brendan Fraser, Nicky Katt, and Ewan McGregor, with 2 of them as the brothers, but no decisions were finalized. The director later sought Patrick Swayze to play Smecker, but Miramax preferred Sylvester Stallone (with whom the studio had an existing relationship), Bill Murray or Mike Myers. Kevin Spacey and Robert De Niro were also considered for the role of Smecker. Before pre-production work was supposed to begin in Boston in December 1997, Miramax pulled out of the project. Producer Lloyd Segan said that the project had stalled because of casting and location problems. While Duffy was able to keep the writer's fee of $300,000, the studio required the reimbursement of the $150,000 director's fee and the $700,000 advance to develop the project. The independent studio Franchise Pictures sought to finance the project once other elements were in place. Duffy approached Sean Patrick Flanery and Norman Reedus to play the brothers, and Willem Dafoe to play the FBI agent. Having found someone to back the film, filming began in Toronto, with the final scenes being filmed in Boston. The name of Duffy's band The Brood was changed to The Boondock Saints, following the movie's release. The film featured two songs from the band: "Holy Fool", which played during Rocco's tavern shootout, and "Pipes", which played during the credits. The Boondock Saints saw a very limited theatrical release, with its distributor showing the film in 2000 on only five screens in the United States for a duration of a week. However, the original unrated version of the film was later re-released in theaters on May 22, 2006. Duffy later funded screenings of the film with help from Blockbuster Video. "Blockbuster saved us [...] They agreed to take it on exclusively, and from there the rest is history." According to Troy Duffy on his audio commentary of the film on DVD, the film's distributor allowed the limited screening in the United States because of the then-recent Columbine High School massacre. The film was shown on major foreign screens (most notably in Japan) with success. Blockbuster released The Boondock Saints as a "Blockbuster Exclusive", a collection of independent direct-to-video films. The Boondock Saints gained a following mostly thanks to word of mouth publicity and was a bestseller when released on DVD. Despite its success, Troy Duffy never saw any of the profits from DVD distribution, having signed away the DVD rights in his contract with Indican.According to Duffy, neither he, his producers nor his principal cast got paid. He sued Franchise Pictures and other undisclosed companies for royalties of the first film and rights to the sequel. After a lengthy lawsuit, Troy Duffy, his producers and the principal cast received an undisclosed amount of The Boondock Saints royalties as well as the sequel rights. The Boondock Saints has been released numerous times on DVD, including an import on March 13, 2001 and an uncut Japanese release published by Toshiba Entertainment, whose special features include anamorphic widescreen, audio commentary, trailers, and interviews with the Japanese media. On May 23, 2006 The Boondock Saints Collector's Edition was published and released by 20th Century Fox on DVD, as well as UMD for the PlayStation Portable. The special features include English and Spanish subtitles, commentary by Billy Connolly and Troy Duffy, deleted scenes and outtakes. It also featured the film's trailer, cast and crew filmographies, and a printable script of the film. 20th Century Fox and Duffy showed an interest in doing a new audio commentary for the special release, but he was unable to because of unresolved legal issues. A Blu-ray Disc edition containing both the theatrical and unrated directors cuts was released on February 10, 2009. A 10th Anniversary of the Blu-ray was released June 14, 2011. The film received generally negative reviews from critics; critics polled on the review aggregator website Rotten Tomatoes gave the film a score of 20% "Rotten", with the site's consensus calling the film, "A juvenile, ugly movie that represents the worst tendencies of directors channeling Tarantino." However, users gave the film a score of 91%. Nathan Rabin of The A.V. Club described the film, in his review of the DVD, as "less a proper action-thriller" than "a series of gratuitously violent setpieces strung together with only the sketchiest semblance of a plot". Rabin went on to describe the film as "all style and no substance, a film so gleeful in its endorsement of vigilante justice that it almost veers (or ascends) into self-parody." Robert Koehler of Variety described the film in his review as "A belated entry in the hipster crime movie movement that began with Reservoir Dogs, Troy Duffy's "Boondock Saints" mixes blood and Catholic-tinged vigilante justice in excessive portions for sometimes wacky and always brutal effect. [The film is] more interested in finding fresh ways to stage execution scenes than in finding meaning behind the human urge for self-appointed righting of wrongs." Koehler also described Flanery and Reedus as "curiously stolid and blank", while praising supporting actors Connolly, Dafoe, and Rota for making the most of their screen time. Koehler also praised the tech personnel, "This uneven exercise in pacing and cutting is abetted by an eclectic score by Jeff Danna and whiz lensing by Adam Kane. Other tech credits fire bull's-eyes." Film critics have taken note of the film's extreme violence and "slow-motion bloodletting". In its original 5-theater run, the film only earned $30,471 at five theaters. It later developed a cult following and has grossed about $50 million in domestic video sales. The documentary film Overnight was released in 2003, following the story of Troy Duffy during his negotiations with Miramax over The Boondock Saints script, as well as his band's struggles to secure a recording contract. Duffy's abrasive behavior strained his relationships with friends and people in the film industry and ultimately led to Miramax pulling out of the project, leaving the film to be made by another studio at half the originally proposed budget. After numerous delays, Troy Duffy shot a sequel, entitled All Saints Day, in which the brothers return to continue their run of vengeance. It was released October 30, 2009. In an October 27 [article, director Duffy and actor Connolly mention details regarding a possible third film. They maintained that "it is slowly in the works and is still just an idea". Duffy insists that he wants to get a few more of his films done before returning to the Boondock Saints. Duffy also added that the proposed working title for the third film would be called "Boondock Saints III: Saints Preserve Us". Although on September 14, 2012, Reedus stated there was going to be no Boondock Saints III. Again, on February 26, 2013, Duffy stated that he was getting together with Reedus and Flanery to resume talks about The Boondock Saints 3, in hopes that they could make the film a reality for fans. As of July 2013, Duffy has confirmed in an interview that he is working on the script for the third film, and possibly a TV series. Reedus and Flanery are confirmed to come back, and he is attempting to get Dafoe back as well. (Interview) On September 3, 2014, the third film, subtitled Legion, was revealed to be in pre-production A two-part comic book story, serving as a companion to the movie sequel, was released in May 2010. The series is written by Troy Duffy, produced by Innfusion Inc. and released through 12 Gauge Comics. The Book focuses on a more in depth version of Il Duce's back story as well as telling the story of the brothers during a hit they performed that is not featured in the film. It was paired with a mini book that was featured on the official Boondock Saints website that told a mini-story that takes place before the strip club scene from the first film. These will eventually be released in one single graphic novel. Another story is currently being proposed that would show the brothers' time in Hoag Prison after the events of All Saints Day.[ Wikiquote has quotations related to: The Boondock Saints Official website The Boondock Saints at the Internet Movie Database The Boondock Saints at AllMovie The Boondock Saints at Box Office Mojo The Boondock Saints at Rotten Tomatoes The Boondock Saints at Metacritic The Official Boondock Saints's channel on YouTube
Hot on the trail of the assailants behind the brutal murder of Russian thugs, FBI agent Paul Smecker (Willem Dafoe) is surprised to discover the killers.
The Boondock Saints
Directed by Troy Duffy. With Willem Dafoe, Sean Patrick Flanery, Norman Reedus, David Della Rocco. Fraternal twins set out to rid Boston of the evil men operating.
Critics Consensus: A juvenile, ugly movie that represents the worst tendencies of directors channeling Tarantino.
Nel maggio 1966 tre esemplari furono imbarcati sulla nave Raffaello per la presentazione negli Stati Uniti. La Spider diventa una 'star' del cinema con il film Il.
Realistic spider simulation game. Interact with your mouse cursor and overcome your arachnophobia.
Australian Museum 1 William Street Sydney NSW 2010 Australia. Contact us. Opening hours. Admission. Getting Here. Membership. Volunteering. Foundation. Careers.
Reise in den perfekten Urlaub. Günstige Hotels, billige Flüge, Städtereisen und Übersetzer, Routenplaner, Reisewetter und Reise-Tipps.
Dear Jane, I do not have any money so am sending you this drawing I did of a spider instead. I read recently of a 'qualified' chiropractor that has been using.
When bitten by a genetically modified spider, a nerdy, shy, and awkward high school student gains spider-like abilities that he eventually must use to fight evil as a.
Kamal Haasan was born November7, 1954 in Paramakudi, Tamil Nadu. He debuted as a child artiste in the film 'Kalathoor Kannamma' (1960), which was released in the year.
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Ko is a 2011 Indian Tamil political thriller film directed by K. V. Anand, starring Jiiva, Ajmal Ameer, Karthika Nair and Piaa Bajpai. The film was released on 22.
Aalavandhan Tamil Movie
Watch Aalavandhan (2001) Tamil Full Movie Online DVDRip, Aalavandhan Tamil Movie Online, Aalavandhan (2001) Watch Tamil Full Movie DVDRip Online, Aalavandhan.
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Ashwin (Jeeva), a young, energetic photojournalist working for the private newspaper Neti Vartha, witnesses Naxalites robbing a local bank. He chases them.
Casshern Sins Cosplay
Live-action sci-fi movie based on a 1973 Japanese animé of the same name (Shinzo Ningen Casshân). Theme song by Utada Hikaru. Storyline In a world with an alternate history, a great war finally comes to an end leaving the earth diseased and polluted. The geneticist Dr. Azuma vies for support from the government for his neo-cell treatment that he claims can rejuvenate the body and regenerate humankind. The government leaders, guarding their own deeply entrenched powers, turn down the professor. Driven to complete his work, Dr. Azuma accepts a secret offer from a sinister faction of the powerful military. After an incident occurs in Dr. Azuma's lab, a race of mutant humans known as the Shinzo Ningen are unleashed upon the world. Now only the warrior known as Casshern, reincarnated with an invincible body, stands between the Shinzo Ningen and a world on the brink of annihilation. Written by Frank Tinsley V','url':'http://www.imdb.com/title/tt0405821/','og_descr':'Directed by Kazuaki Kiriya. With Yûsuke Iseya, Kumiko Asô, Akira Terao, Kanako Higuchi. Live-action sci-fi movie based on a 1973 Japanese animé of the same name (Shinzo Ningen Casshân). Theme song by Utada Hikaru.
News chronological archives; 10:45 Ajin - Demi-Human TV Anime to Have 13 Episodes; 10:00 Fuji TV Creates New Daytime Anime Timeslot for 1st Time in 10 Years for.
Directed by Kazuaki Kiriya. With Yûsuke Iseya, Kumiko Asô, Akira Terao, Kanako Higuchi. Live-action sci-fi movie based on a 1973 Japanese animé of the same name.
タツノコプロ×マッドハウス キャシャーンSins公式サイト. 2009.6.15. 山内監督×馬越氏インタビューがwebアニメスタイルに.
Casshern (キャシャーン, Kyashān?) is a 2004 Japanese tokusatsu superhero film written and directed by Kazuaki Kiriya. It stars Yusuke Iseya as.
Casshern Sins (キャシャーン Sins is a reboot of the classic anime series Casshan, produced by Tatsunoko and animated by Madhouse It premiered in Japan on.
Casshern Sins Soundtrack
TUCKER & DALE VS EVIL Starring Tyler Labine, Alan Tudyk and Katrina Bowden - Available on DVD and Blu-ray™.
Handlung. Eine Gruppe von neun College-Studenten trifft auf dem Weg zum Camping in einer entlegenen Waldregion in den Appalachen auf die beiden leicht verwahrlosten.
"A BELLY-LAUGH-INDUCING DEBUT. One of the best comedic horror films since Shaun of the Dead. Solid writing, brilliantly executed slapstick comedy, and nicely choreographed scenes of ultraviolence - not to mention amazing chemistry between Tudyk and Labine." About The Film Tucker and Dale are two best friends on vacation at their dilapidated mountain house, who are mistaken for murderous backwoods hillbillies by a group of obnoxious, preppy college kids.
Файл: Убойные каникулы - Tucker - Dale vs Evil (2010) HDRip от Xixidok | Озвучка по Гоблину.torrent Формат: AVI Видео.
Directed by Eli Craig. With Tyler Labine, Alan Tudyk, Katrina Bowden, Jesse Moss. Tucker & Dale are on vacation at their dilapidated mountain cabin when they are.
Tucker & Dale vs Evil movie reviews & Metacritic score: Tucker & Dale vs Evil is a hilariously gory, good-spirited horror comedy, doing for killer rednecks w.
Starring Tyler Labine, Alan Tudyk and Katrina Bowden - Available on DVD and Blu-ray™
El Vampiro Canadiense
El Vampiro De Sacramento
Directed by Fernando Méndez. With Abel Salazar, Ariadna Welter, Carmen Montejo, José Luis Jiménez. A pretty young Mexican girl returns to her hometown to make funeral arrangements for her beloved aunt, who has just died. Soon she begins to hear disturbing stories about the town being infested by vampires, and she eventually begins to suspect that her remaining aunt and the mysterious next=door neighbor may be involved.
Poema El Vampiro de Efrén Rebolledo Te invitamos a disfrutar mas poemas de Efrén Rebolledo. Disfruta también de nuestros poemas de amor, de amistad, de familia.
Amazing master closet makeover! Storage towers, built-in laundry hampers, and a mudroom-style bench with a drawer make this closet functional and beautiful!
Already have an account? Log in here First Name Last Name Email Birthday Month January February March April May June July August September October November December Day 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 Year 2014 2013 2012 2011 2010 2009 2008 2007 2006 2005 2004 2003 2002 2001 2000 1999 1998 1997 1996 1995 1994 1993 1992 1991 1990 1989 1988 1987 1986 1985 1984 1983 1982 1981 1980 1979 1978 1977 1976 1975 1974 1973 1972 1971 1970 1969 1968 1967 1966 1965 1964 1963 1962 1961 1960 1959 1958 1957 1956 1955 1954 1953 1952 1951 1950 1949 1948 1947 1946 1945 1944 1943 1942 1941 1940 1939 1938 1937 1936 1935 1934 1933 1932 1931 1930 1929 1928 1927 1926 1925 1924 1923 1922 1921 1920 1919 1918 1917 1916 1915 Movie Info A frightened young boy summons the courage to confront an ominous presence in his bedroom closet while struggling with the emotional pain of watching his family life slowly unravel in first-time feature filmmaker Shelli Ryan's haunting tale of innocence lost. The two most important people in Jake (Anthony DeMarco)'s world are drifting apart, and as his parents navigate the treacherous mine field of divorce, an evil presence makes itself begins to make itself known. By day Jake does his best to be brave in the face of an uncertain future, and by night he cowers in his bedroom, paralyzed with fear at the malevolent force that lurks in his bedroom closet. But no one believes Jake's claims about a monster in the closet, leaving the frightened child with no other choice than to face the ultimate evil all alone. As night falls, Jake ventures into his closet and uncovers a dark secret that will surely haunt him for the rest of his days. … More','url':'http://www.rottentomatoes.com/m/jakes-closet/','og_descr':'No consensus yet.
Readers be warned, this tour is not your average 'see and replicate' house tour. It's something much better. This peek into Jake and Bridget's refreshingly offbeat.
100th Anniversary of the Community Presbyterian Church of Jordan. Secretary McCulloch honored the Community Presbyterian Church of Jordan with the Secretary of State.
The Secretary of Defense (SecDef) is the leader and chief executive officer of the Department of Defense, an Executive Department of the Government of the United States of America. The Secretary of Defense's power over the United States military is second only to that of the President. This position corresponds to what is generally known as a Defense Minister in many other countries. The Secretary of Defense is appointed by the President with the advice and consent of the Senate, and is by custom a member of the Cabinet and by law a member of the National Security Council. Secretary of Defense is a statutory office, and the general provision in 10 U.S.C. § 113 provides that the Secretary of Defense has "authority, direction and control over the Department of Defense", and is further designated by the same statute as "the principal assistant to the President in all matters relating to the Department of Defense." Ensuring civilian control of the military, an individual may not be appointed as Secretary of Defense within seven years after relief from active duty as a commissioned officer of a regular (i.e., non-reserve) component of an armed force. The Secretary of Defense is in the chain of command and exercises command and control, subject only to the orders of the President, over all Department of Defense forces (the Army, Navy, Air Force, and Marine Corps) for both operational and administrative purposes. Only the Secretary of Defense (or the President) can authorize the transfer of operational control of forces between the three Military Departments (the departments of the Army, Navy, and Air Force) and the nine Combatant Commands (Africa Command, Central Command, European Command, Northern Command, Pacific Command, Southern Command, Special Operations Command, Strategic Command, Transportation Command). Because the Office of Secretary of Defense is vested with legal powers which exceeds those of any commissioned officer, and is second only to the President in the military hierarchy, it has sometimes unofficially been referred to as a de facto "deputy commander-in-chief". The Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff is the principal military adviser to the Secretary of Defense and the President, and while the Chairman may assist the Secretary and President in their command functions, the Chairman is not in the chain of command. The Secretary of Defense, Secretary of State, the Attorney General, and the Secretary of the Treasury are generally regarded as the four most important cabinet officials because of the importance of their departments. The current Secretary of Defense is Ashton Carter, who was confirmed as the 25th Secretary of Defense on February 12, 2015, and assumed office on February 17, 2015. The Army, Navy, and Marine Corps were established in 1775, in concurrence with the American Revolution. The War Department, headed by the Secretary of War, was created by Act of Congress in 1789 and was responsible for both the Army and Navy until the founding of a separate Department of the Navy in 1798. Based on the experiences of World War II, proposals were soon made on how to more effectively manage the large combined military establishment. The Army generally favored centralization while the Navy had institutional preferences for decentralization and the status quo. The resulting National Security Act of 1947 was largely a compromise between these divergent viewpoints. The Act split the War Department into the Department of the Army and the Department of the Air Force, each with their own Secretary, and created a sui generis National Military Establishment led by a Secretary of Defense. At first, each of the service secretaries maintained quasi-cabinet status. The first Secretary of Defense, James Forrestal, who in his previous capacity as Secretary of the Navy had opposed creation of the new position, found it difficult to exercise authority over them with the limited powers his office had at the time. To address this and other problems, the National Security Act was amended in 1949 to further consolidate the national defense structure in order to reduce interservice rivalry, directly subordinate the Secretaries of the Army, the Navy and the Air Force to the Secretary of Defense in the chain of command, and rename the National Military Establishment to the Department of Defense as one Executive Department. The position of the Deputy Secretary of Defense, the number two position in the department, was also created at this time. The general trend since 1949 has been to further centralize management in the Department of Defense, elevating the status and authorities of civilian OSD appointees and defense-wide organizations at the expense of the military departments and the services within them. The last major revision of the statutory framework concerning the position was done in the Goldwater–Nichols Department of Defense Reorganization Act of 1986. In particular, it elevated the status of joint service for commissioned officers, making it in practice a requirement before appointments to general officer and flag officer grades could be made. The Secretary of War [now Secretary of Defense] is the regular constitutional organ of the President for the administration of the military establishment of the nation; and rules and orders publicly promulgated through him must be received as the acts of the executive, and as such, be binding upon all within the sphere of his legal and constitutional authority. Such regulations cannot be questioned or denied because they may be thought unwise or mistaken. . United States v. Eliason, 41 U.S. 291 (1842) Nor is it necessary for the Secretary of War [now Secretary of Defense] in promulgating such rules or orders to state that they emanate from the President, for the presumption is that the Secretary is acting with the President's approbation and under his direction. In re Brodie, 128 Fed. 668 (CCA 8th 1904) The Secretary of Defense, appointed by the President with the advice and consent of the Senate, is by federal law (10 U.S.C. § 113) the head of the Department of Defense, "the principal assistant to the President in all matters relating to Department of Defense", and has "authority, direction and control over the Department of Defense". Because the Constitution vests all military authority in Congress and the President, the statutory authority of the Secretary of Defense is derived from their constitutional authorities. Since it is impractical for either Congress or the President to participate in every piece of Department of Defense affairs, the Secretary of Defense, and the Secretary's subordinate officials generally exercise military authority. As the head of DoD, all officials, employees and service members are "under" the Secretary of Defense. Some of those high-ranking officials, civil and military (outside of OSD and the Joint Staff) are: the Secretary of the Army, Secretary of the Navy, and Secretary of the Air Force, Army Chief of Staff, Commandant of the Marine Corps, Chief of Naval Operations, and Air Force Chief of Staff, Chief of the National Guard Bureau and the Combatant Commanders of the Combatant Commands. All of these high-ranking positions, civil and military, require Senate confirmation. The Department of Defense is composed of the Office of the Secretary of Defense (OSD), the Joint Chiefs of Staff (JCS) and the Joint Staff (JS), Office of the Inspector General (DODIG), the Combatant Commands, the Military Departments (Department of the Army (DA), Department of the Navy (DON) & Department of the Air Force (DAF)), the Defense Agencies and DoD Field Activities, the National Guard Bureau (NGB), and such other offices, agencies, activities, organizations, and commands established or designated by law, or by the President or by the Secretary of Defense. Department of Defense Directive 5100.01 describes the organizational relationships within the Department, and is the foundational issuance for delineating the major functions of the Department. The latest version, signed by former Secretary of Defense Robert Gates in December 2010, is the first major re-write since 1987. The Secretary's principally civilian staff element is called the Office of the Secretary of Defense (OSD) and is composed of the Deputy Secretary of Defense (DEPSECDEF) and five Under Secretaries of Defense in the fields of Acquisition, Technology & Logistics, Comptroller/Chief Financial Officer, Intelligence, Personnel & Readiness, and Policy; several Assistant Secretaries of Defense; other directors and the staffs under them. The name of the principally military staff organization, organized under the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, is the Joint Staff (JS). The Defense Distinguished Service Medal (DDSM), the Defense Superior Service Medal (DSSM), the Defense Meritorious Service Medal (DMSM), the Joint Service Commendation Medal (JSCM) and the Joint Service Achievement Medal (JSAM) are awarded, to military personnel for service in joint duty assignments, in the name of the Secretary of Defense. In addition, there is the Joint Meritorious Unit Award (JMUA), which is the only ribbon (as in non-medal) and unit award issued to joint DoD activities, also issued in the name of the Secretary of Defense. The DDSM is analogous to the distinguished services medals issued by the military departments (i.e. Army Distinguished Service Medal, Navy Distinguished Service Medal & Air Force Distinguished Service Medal), the DSSM corresponds to the Legion of Merit, the DMSM to the Meritorious Service Medal, the JSCM to the service commendation medals, and the JSAM to the achievement medals issued by the services. While the approval authority for DSSM, DMSM, JSCM, JSAM and JMUA is delegated to inferior DoD officials: the DDSM can only be awarded by the Secretary of Defense. Recommendations for the Medal of Honor (MOH), formally endorsed in writing by the Secretary of the Military Department concerned and the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, are processed through the Under Secretary of Defense for Personnel and Readiness, and such recommendations be must approved by the Secretary of Defense before it can be handed over to the President, who is the final approval authority for the MOH, although it is awarded in the name of Congress. The Secretary of Defense, with the concurrence of the Secretary of State, is the approval authority for the acceptance and wear of NATO medals issued by the Secretary General of NATO and offered to the U.S. Permanent Representative to NATO in recognition of U.S. Service members who meet the eligibility criteria specified by NATO. As the head of the department, the Secretary of Defense is the chief witness for the congressional committees with oversight responsibilities over the Department of Defense. The most important committees, with respect to the entire department, are the two authorizing committees, the Senate Armed Services Committee (SASC) and the House Armed Services Committee (HASC), and the two appropriations committees, the Senate Appropriations Committee and the House Appropriations Committee. For the DoD intelligence programs the Senate Select Committee on Intelligence and the House Permanent Select Committee on Intelligence have the principal oversight role. The Secretary of Defense is a statutory member of the National Security Council. As one of the principals, the Secretary along with the Vice President, Secretary of State and the Assistant to the President for National Security Affairs participates in biweekly Principals Committee (PC) meetings, preparing and coordinating issues before they are brought before full NSC sessions chaired by the President. The Secretary is one of only five or six civilians — the others being the President, the three "service secretaries" (the Secretary of the Army, Secretary of the Navy, and Secretary of the Air Force), and the Secretary of Homeland Security (when the United States Coast Guard is under the United States Department of Homeland Security and has not been transferred to the Department of the Navy under the Department of Defense) — authorized to act as convening authority in the military justice system for General Courts-Martial (10 U.S.C. § 822: article 22, UCMJ), Special Courts-Martial (10 U.S.C. § 823: article 23, UCMJ), and Summary Courts-Martial (10 U.S.C. § 824: article 24 UCMJ). Secretary of Defense is a Level I position of the Executive Schedule, and thus earns a salary of $203,700 per year as of January 2015. The longest-serving Secretary of Defense is Robert McNamara, who served for a total of 2,595 days. Combining his two non-sequential services as Secretary of Defense, the second longest serving is Donald Rumsfeld, who served just ten days fewer than McNamara. The shortest-serving Secretary of Defense is Elliot Richardson, who was quickly moved to US Attorney General after 114 days due to resignations during the Watergate Scandal (not counting Deputy Secretary of Defense William P. Clements and William Howard Taft IV, who each served a few weeks as temporary/acting Secretary of Defense). Parties Democratic Republican Status Denotes an Acting Secretary of Defense No. Portrait Name State of Residence Took Office Left Office Days served President serving under 1 James V. Forrestal New York September 19, 1947 March 19, 1949 558 Harry S Truman 2 Louis A. Johnson West Virginia March 28, 1949 September 19, 1950 540 3 George C. Marshall Pennsylvania September 19, 1950 September 19, 1951 365 4 Robert A. Lovett New York September 19, 1951 January 20, 1953 491 5 Charles E. Wilson Michigan January 20, 1953 October 8, 1957 1,722 Dwight D. Eisenhower 6 Neil H. McElroy Ohio October 9, 1957 December 1, 1959 783 7 Thomas S. Gates, Jr. Pennsylvania December 2, 1959 January 20, 1961 415 8 Robert S. McNamara Michigan January 21, 1961 February 29, 1968 2,595 John F. Kennedy Lyndon B. Johnson 9 Clark M. Clifford Maryland March 1, 1968 January 20, 1969 326 10 Melvin R. Laird Wisconsin January 22, 1969 January 29, 1973 1,469 Richard Nixon 11 Elliot L. Richardson Massachusetts January 30, 1973 May 24, 1973 114 – William P. Clements (acting) Texas May 24, 1973 July 2, 1973 39 12 James R. Schlesinger Virginia July 2, 1973 November 19, 1975 403 467 (870 total) Gerald Ford 13 Donald Rumsfeld Illinois November 20, 1975 January 20, 1977 427 14 Harold Brown California January 21, 1977 January 20, 1981 1,460 Jimmy Carter 15 Caspar Weinberger California January 21, 1981 November 23, 1987 2,497 Ronald Reagan 16 Frank Carlucci Virginia November 23, 1987 January 20, 1989 424 – William Howard Taft IV (acting) Ohio January 20, 1989 March 20, 1989 59 George H. W. Bush 17 Richard B. Cheney Wyoming March 21, 1989 January 20, 1993 1,402 18 Leslie Aspin Wisconsin January 21, 1993 February 3, 1994 378 Bill Clinton 19 William J. Perry Pennsylvania February 3, 1994 January 24, 1997 1,085 20 William S. Cohen Maine January 24, 1997 January 20, 2001 1,457 21 Donald Rumsfeld Illinois January 20, 2001 December 18, 2006 2,158 George W. Bush 22 Robert M. Gates Texas December 18, 2006 July 1, 2011 764 879 (1,643 total) Barack Obama 23 Leon Panetta California July 1, 2011 February 27, 2013 608 24 Chuck Hagel Nebraska February 27, 2013 February 17, 2015 720 25 Ashton Carter Massachusetts February 17, 2015 Incumbent 221 The Secretary of Defense is sixth in the presidential line of succession, following the Secretary of the Treasury and preceding the Attorney General. In Executive Order 13533 of March 1, 2010, President Barack Obama modified the line of succession regarding who would act as Secretary of Defense in the event of a vacancy or incapacitation, thus reversing the changes made by President George W. Bush in Executive Order 13394 as to the relative positions of the Secretaries of the Military Departments. All of the officials in the line of succession are civilians appointed by the President with the advice and consent of the Senate: Executive Order 13533 (March 1, 2010–present) # Office Secretary of Defense 1 Deputy Secretary of Defense 2 Secretary of the Army 3 Secretary of the Navy 4 Secretary of the Air Force 5 Under Secretary of Defense for Acquisition, Technology, and Logistics 6 Under Secretary of Defense for Policy 7 Under Secretary of Defense (Comptroller) 8 Under Secretary of Defense for Personnel and Readiness 9 Under Secretary of Defense for Intelligence 10 Deputy Chief Management Officer of the Department of Defense 11 Principal Deputy Under Secretary of Defense for Acquisition, Technology, and Logistics 12 Principal Deputy Under Secretary of Defense for Policy 13 Principal Deputy Under Secretary of Defense (Comptroller) 14 Principal Deputy Under Secretary of Defense for Personnel and Readiness 15 Principal Deputy Under Secretary of Defense for Intelligence 16 Director of Defense Research and Engineering 17 General Counsel of the Department of Defense Assistant Secretaries of Defense Assistant to the Secretary of Defense for Nuclear and Chemical and Biological Defense Programs Director of Operational Test and Evaluation Director of Operational Energy Plans and Programs and the Director of Cost Assessment and Program Evaluation 18 Under Secretary of the Army Under Secretary of the Navy and the Under Secretary of the Air Force 19 Assistant Secretaries of the Army Assistant Secretaries of the Navy Assistant Secretaries of the Air Force General Counsel of the Army General Counsel of the Navy and the General Counsel of the Air Force. Executive Order 13394 (December 22, 2005 – March 1, 2010) # Office Secretary of Defense 1 Deputy Secretary of Defense 2 Under Secretary of Defense for Intelligence 3 Under Secretary of Defense for Policy 4 Under Secretary of Defense for Acquisition, Technology, and Logistics 5 Secretary of the Army 6 Secretary of the Air Force 7 Secretary of the Navy 8 Under Secretary of Defense for Personnel and Readiness and the Under Secretary of Defense (Comptroller) 9 Deputy Under Secretary of Defense for Acquisition and Technology Deputy Under Secretary of Defense for Policy and the Deputy Under Secretary of Defense for Personnel and Readiness 10 General Counsel of the Department of Defense Assistant Secretaries of Defense and the Director of Operational Test and Evaluation 11 Deputy Under Secretary of Defense for Logistics and Material Readiness and the Director of Defense Research and Engineering 12 Under Secretary of the Army Under Secretary of the Navy and the Under Secretary of the Air Force 13 Assistant Secretaries of the Army Assistant Secretaries of the Navy Assistant Secretaries of the Air Force General Counsel of the Army General Counsel of the Navy and the General Counsel of the Air Force. As of June 2015[there are ten living former Secretaries of Defense, the oldest being Melvin Laird (1969–1973, born 1922). The most recent Secretary of Defense to die was James R. Schlesinger (1977–1979), on March 27, 2014. Name Term of office Date of birth (and age) Melvin Laird 1969–1973 (September 1, 1922 ( Donald Rumsfeld 1975–1977, 2001–2006 (July 9, 1932 ( Harold Brown 1977–1981 (September 19, 1927 ( Frank Carlucci 1987–1989 (October 18, 1930 ( Dick Cheney 1989–1993 (January 30, 1941 ( William Perry 1994–1997 (October 11, 1927 ( William Cohen 1997–2001 (August 28, 1940 ( Robert Gates 2006–2011 (September 25, 1943 ( Leon Panetta 2011–2013 (June 28, 1938 ( Chuck Hagel 2013–2015 (October 4, 1946 ( List of United States Secretaries of Defense by time in office Base Realignment and Closure Commission Boeing E-4 Challenge coin Combat Exclusion Policy Commission to Assess the Ballistic Missile Threat to the United States CONPLAN 8022-02 Defense Policy Board Advisory Committee Defense Support of Civil authorities Department of Defense Directive 2310 Designated survivor Emergency Action Message Federal Executive Branch ''Continuity of Operations Plan'' Global Command and Control System Gold Codes Hamdan v. Rumsfeld Joint Worldwide Intelligence Communications System Key West Agreement McCarran Internal Security Act Military Commissions Act of 2006 Military operation plan National Command Authority National Industrial Security Program National Security Strategy (United States) Office of the Secretary of Defense Identification Badge Packard Commission Permissive Action Link Presidential Successor Support System Quadrennial Defense Review Rules of engagement Secretary of Defense Employer Support Freedom Award Single Integrated Operational Plan State secrets privilege Stop-loss policy Two-man rule Unconventional warfare (United States Department of Defense doctrine) United States Foreign Military Financing US Commission on National Security/21st Century Title 10 of the United States Code Title 50 of the United States Codedisplay-editors= suggested (help) Mahan, Erin R., and Jeffrey A. Larsen, eds. (2012) “Evolution of the Secretary of Defense in the Era of Massive Retaliation: Charles Wilson, Neil McElroy, and Thomas Gates, 1953–1961,” Cold War Foreign Policy Series: Special Study 3 (September 2012), vii–41. Wikimedia Commons has media related to United States Secretary of Defense. Department of Defense official website DoD Issuances Director of Administration & Management, Office of the Secretary of Defense Executive Secretary, Office of the Secretary of Defense Historical Office, Office of the Secretary of Defense United States presidential line of succession Preceded by Secretary of the Treasury Jack Lew 6th in line Succeeded by Attorney General Loretta Lynch
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